Agriculture is an important source of welfare in many developed and developing countries. It is also the most vulnerable to climate change of all the other sectors in any economy. The adaptation literature demonstrates how concerted adaptation strategies can minimize the resulting negative impacts on rural households. Adaptation may include modification of existing or developing new institutions and infrastructures to support the necessary adaptation options and strategies. Institutions can be developed by the state or by the community. The community faces a set of social norms under which it operates, that interact with new institutions and affects it adaptability to changing conditions. This paper addresses the role of official institutions and local social norms in adaptation of irrigated agriculture to adversity from changes in climatic conditions. A simple analytical framework is developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of several institutions along with the existing social norms and infrastructure, using conditions of drought and flood, as representative cases of climate change. Evidence from exiting studies is used to assess the role of institutions, social norms, and infrastructures in supporting various adaptation strategies, including developing and adopting different agriculture and water management technologies and other related adaptation strategies.
International Journal of Water Governance

Dinar, A, & Jammalamadaka, U.K. (2013). Adaptation of irrigated agriculture to adversity and variability under conditions of drought and likely climate change: Interaction between water institutions and social norms. International Journal of Water Governance, 1, 41–64. doi:10.7564/12-IJWG7